The Star Alliance carrier will operate the superjumbo jet on routes to Europe and the USA, says Airbus. It has yet to select engines for the A380s.
"With the A380, Asiana will be able to take its award-winning service to a new level, offering the very highest standards of comfort in the sky," says Asiana's president and CEO Yoon Young-Doo.
"At the same time, the significantly reduced operating costs and fuel efficiencies afforded by the aircraft will enable us to enhance our productivity and reduce our carbon footprint. This is in line with our policy to operate one of the most modern and environmentally-friendly fleets in the world."
© Airbus (computer modeling & rendering ABAC effect
The airline did not give details of how its A380s will be configured but Airbus says Asiana's A380s will have a "premium layout".
"The order is a further endorsement of the A380 as the most efficient tool to meet demand on the world's most heavily travelled routes, especially out of the fast-growing Asia-Pacific region," says Airbus chief operating officer John Leahy.
Asiana's order for the superjumbo jet is the first announced since a Qantas Airways A380 was involved in an uncontained engine failure during a Singapore-Sydney flight on 4 November.
Including today's order, Airbus has 240 firm orders for the A380 from 18 customers.