Investigators probing a Xiamen Airlines Boeing 737-800 excursion in Manila have disclosed that the captain twice overruled the first officer's call for a go-around on final approach.
The first officer also made two other go-around calls after the jet had touched down on runway 24 on 16 August last year.
Its crew had previously executed one missed approach at 30ft owing to insufficient visual reference, and the pilots discussed the possibility of a second go-around, and diversion, should similar conditions prevail.
In an update to the probe the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines accident inquiry board says the aircraft was stabilised in landing configuration during the second approach, and its autopilot and autothrottle were disengaged while descending through 1,000ft.
While the aircraft had remained on course through the decision altitude, it started to drift to the left as it passed over the runway threshold.
The first officer called "go-around", says the inquiry, but the captain responded: "No."
As the 737 descended to 13ft it was rolling to the left and continuing to drift left of the centreline, and the first officer again called for a go-around at 10ft – a call which was similarly rejected by the captain.
The aircraft, which had been de-crabbing just prior to the flare, touched down at 151kt with winds from about 275° at 8.5kt. It made runway contact to the left of the centreline and 741m from the threshold, says the inquiry.
"Upon touchdown, the aircraft continued on its leftwards trajectory," it states, although the heading remained "almost constant" at 241°.
While the 737 was travelling along the ground the first officer made two "go-around" calls. The jet exited the left edge of the runway at 147kt and its landing-gear collided with several concrete junction boxes before the aircraft came to rest 1,500m from the threshold.
Reverse thrust was not activated after touchdown and, although activation of the speedbrakes and autobrake was recorded, the autobrake subsequently disengaged for undetermined reasons.
Passengers and crew evacuated and, although the 737 suffered substantial damage, none of the 165 occupants was injured.
Thunderstorms and intermittent heavy rain had been present in the vicinity of the airport at the time of the accident.
The inquiry says the aircraft destabilised in the final moments of the approach, but that the captain "did not heed" the first officer's call for a go-around.
Xiamen Airlines' procedures for providing guidance to crews regarding a go-around call were "less than adequate", it adds, while the crew had not carried out appropriate threat-management strategies for a crosswind approach in poor weather.
Investigators point out that Xiamen Airlines has since implemented a series of corrective measures, reviewing and reinforcing its go-around policy and improving training for rain and wet runway operations at night.
Xiamen Airlines has also examined the crew-resource management characteristics of pilots from different nationalities, the inquiry says, and "optimised" safety meetings to improve "proficiency co-operation" between Chinese and non-Chinese pilots.