The first phase of Canada's so-called airline passenger bill of rights has taken effect with rules requiring airlines pay compensation for bumping passengers and for lost or delayed baggage.

A second wave of rules addressing compensation for delays and cancellations takes effect on 15 December.

As of 15 July, airlines are required to pay C$900-C$2,400 ($690-$1,841) to passengers who are denied boarding for reasons within an airline's control.

Specific amounts are based on the extent of delays, and airlines must pay the compensation within 48h, the rules say.

The latest regulations also require airlines to provide travel on other carriers to passengers affected by cancellations or by flight disruptions causing delays of 3h or more.

Airlines must also pay passengers up to C$2,100 for cases of lost, damaged or delayed baggage, the rules say.

Additionally, airlines must allow passengers off aircraft in cases of tarmac delays of 3h. However, airlines may keep passengers aboard if the airline expects the aircraft will take off less than 3h 45min after the aircraft door was shut, the rules say.

On 15 December more consumer protection measures will take effect, including a requirement that airlines compensate passengers in amounts of C$400-C$1,000 for flight delays.