Estonian investigators have indicated that both engines on a SmartLynx Airbus A320 shut down as it conducted an emergency approach after suffering damage during a touch-and-go exercise.
The aircraft had been engaged in a training flight at Tallinn on 28 February, with seven occupants including an inspector from the Estonian civil aviation administration.
It had successfully landed on runway 08 but failed to climb away, losing altitude and impacting the far end of the runway before becoming airborne again.
Investigation authority OJK says the hard contact resulted in the engines striking the runway, and damaged the aircraft's undercarriage doors. The twinjet was fitted with CFM International CFM56 powerplants.
The A320 managed to gain height after the impact and the pilots were able to stabilise the aircraft and made a left turn in order to carry out an approach to the opposite-direction runway 26, rather than joining the pattern for a new approach to 08.
After the turn, both engines stopped, says the inquiry.
The crew requested an emergency landing and the jet touched down about 150m before the runway and came to rest 15m south of it, having burst all its tyres.
OJK says the instructor pilot and one of the four trainees received minor injuries.
It has analysed the aircraft's flight recorders but has yet to draw conclusions over the circumstances which led to the accident.