No airline or air travel market has been left untouched by the coronarvirus epidemic, which has all but brought to a halt international scheduled passenger services.

IATA if now forecasting airline traffic will be roughly half the levels seen in 2019 as national lockdowns take hold and with the likelihood of an only gradual return to normal as recession compounds the health crisis.

Against this backdrop and with limited cash resources remaining, airlines, regulators and governments are having to look at unprecedented moves to keep the industry afloat during a sustained grounding. But the challenges and responses differ across airlines and markets.