The past 12 months has seen a regional jet boom, with sales flourishing and new models brought to market

Andrew Doyle/MUNICH Max Kingsley-Jones/LONDON

The regional aircraft sector has been dominated in the past year by jet product launches, namely the Fairchild Aerospace 428JET and 528/728/928JETfamily, Embraer RJ-170/190 and Airbus A318. Product development activity in the turboprop airliner market has virtually ground to a halt as airlines scramble to re-equip with jets.

Last year almost 80% of the 570 regional airliner orders placed were for regional jets which also represented just under half of the 330 deliveries in the regional sector.

This is the closest so far that regional jet deliveries have come to the turboprops and next year it is expected that they will surpass turboprops for the first time next year.

The trend for turboprop operators seeking to move up to small jets continues to drive demand for the 50-seat jets. Meanwhile sales of the new 37 and 70-seat jet derivatives (ie, the ERJ-135 and CRJ-700) are getting into their stride, the latter category representing the upper edge of many US pilot scope clauses as agreed.

The fragile regional market has already seen the exodus of several manufacturers recently including Fokker, Saab and BAe's turboprop arm, Jetstream.

The market will not sustain the large number of patricipants now competing to produce jets and consolidation is likely this year.

Embraer speculation

Meanwhile, Embraer has been the subject of much speculation about a possible link with another aerospace company. BAe has emerged as a front runner to take a shareholding, but any link is tied more to the prospects of military deals with Brazil, rather than strategic regional airliner production issues.

Despite a hugely successful year in sales terms, Embraer has been hurt by the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) recent upholding of its decision that Brazil's Proex export support programme illegally subsidises Embraer regional jet sales. The WTO's appellate body also upheld a ruling that the Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC) fund illegally subsidised Bombardier's regional aircraft programmes - but nevertheless, the Canadian manufacturer seems to have scored a victory in the long-running dispute, with the $4.5 billion in Proex commitments made by Embraer to customers eclipsing the $100 million in TPC funding having been provided for its Dash 8-400 and CRJ-700 programmes.

With new regional jet programmes emerging from both sides of the Atlantic, General Electric has emerged as the dominant powerplant supplier. The US manufacturer's CF34 turbofan has been selected as the sole powerplant for both the 728JET and RJ-170/190 families. The engine already powers the Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet Series 100/200 and 700.

Bombardier has advanced development of the BRJ-X but is not expected to make a launch decision until early next year.

European consortium ATR, meanwhile, has been increasingly marginalised since the failure of partnership talks with Fairchild and Embraer, and it now admits it is unlikely to be delivering its proposed Airjet family until at least 2005.

AIRBUS INDUSTRIE Airbus Industrie, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, Blagnac F31707, France; tel: +33 (61) 93 33 33; fax: +33 (61) 93 37 92; telex: 530526 FAIRBU. Web:


Airbus Industrie has been present in the single-aisle market since the mid-1980s with its 150-seat A320, and launch of the 100-seat A318 earlier this year enabled it to enter the regional market. The A320 was the world's first subsonic airliner with a fly-by-wire flight control system, and the four-model family now extends from 100 to 200 seats. After initially studying the development of an all-new 80- to 100-seat family with China and Singapore (AE31X), Airbus decided to derive the A318 from the A320. The new model received full launch approval in April, and first flight is scheduled for the third quarter of 2001, with deliveries beginning a year later. The aircraft represents a 4.5-frame shrink over the A319 and is offered with engines in the 20,000-23,500lb-thrust range, including the P&W PW6000 and CFM56-5B.

Production: Final assembly of the A318 will be undertaken by Dasa Airbus at Hamburg, alongside the A319 and A321. Production will begin in early 2001.

Ordered: 30 (A318) Delivered: 0

AIRTECH IPTN, PO Box 1562, Jalan Pajajaran 154, Bandung 40174, Indonesia; tel: +62 (22) 633 900; fax: +62 (22) 631 696.

Airtech, a 50:50 joint venture between CASA of Spain and Indonesia's IPTN, produces the CN-235 turboprop - see CASA.

AMERICAN UTILICRAFT 300 Petty Road NE, Suite B, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043, USA; tel: +1 (678) 376 0898; fax: +1 (678) 376 9093; Web:; email:

FF-1080-200 Freight Feeder

American Utilicraft (AUC) has selected several subcontractors for its FF-1080-200 Freight Feeder, a twin turboprop aircraft which is being designed specifically for overnight package carriers. A full-scale mock-up of the aircraft's 19.5m-long cargo compartment, sized to accommodate standard LD3 containers, has been completed. A pre-production prototype is due to be completed by December. AUC first revealed details of the FF-1080-200 in early 1998, announcing it was negotiating a 50-aircraft launch order with an unnamed US cargo operator, with funding for the programme tied to securing a launch customer. AUC's business plan is based on sales of 500 aircraft over eight years. The FF-1080-200 is powered by two P&WC PW127F turboprops driving Hamilton Sundstrand six-blade propellers. South Korean, Taiwanese and US companies responded to a request for proposals to supply subassemblies for the aircraft.

ANTONOV Antonov Aeronautical Scientific and Technical Complex, 1 Tupolev str, Kiev 252062, Ukraine; tel: +380 (44) 4425 7098; fax: +380 (44) 4495 9996; telex: 131048, 132792 OZON.


The An-32 twin-turboprop was first flown in 1977. Derived from the An-26, with improvements such as high-lift devices, de-icing and cabin air-conditioning, the aircraft is powered by two Progress AI-20D turboprops. The An-32P, a fire-fighting variant of the aircraft, is also available, with an 8,000kg water capacity.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken by the KAPO.


The 27-passenger twin-turboprop An-38 was first flown in June 1994. Antonov and Russian manufacturer Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO) achieved certification of the aircraft in April 1997 and took orders for three from Vosbok Avia. The aircraft was developed by the Antonov design bureau from the earlier An-28, but includes extensive Western-supplied equipment. AlliedSignal supplies the twin 1,300kW TPE331-14 turboprop engines and integrates the propulsion system.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken in Novosibirsk by NAPO. The maximum potential production rate at the plant is 50 per year.


Antonov confirmed in late-1998 that it had signed a contract with the Iranian Government for the licensed production of 80 An-140 twin turboprops. The aircraft are to be assembled at the Shakir factory in Iran by state-owned manufacturer HESA, using parts to be supplied by the Ukrainian company. Iran Air and Iran Asseman Airlines are believed to have signed up as customers. The contract specifies that An-140s produced in Iran will be for the domestic market only, though sources suggest the country is keen to build up to 160 additional aircraft for export to CIS countries. Talks were also under way with engine-builder Klimov to build the aircraft's TV7-117BMA-C62 powerplant in Iran, probably at a plant near Tehran. The An-140 is a high-wing, 52-seat regional airliner, developed to replace ageing An-24s still in operation worldwide. The first of two prototypes built at the Antonov plant in Kiev made its first flight in September 1997. The An-140 had been expected to receive certification in early 1999, but this has been delayed.

Production: Plants in Ukraine and Russia (Samara) are being prepared to meet the demand to replace 600 An-24s and Yakovlev Yak-40s still in service in the CIS. Wings for the prototypes were manufactured at Kharkov aircraft production organisation ( KhAPO), which is gearing up for series production.

ATR Avions de Transport Regional, 1 allée Pierre Nadot, BP 16, 31712 Blagnac Cedex F-31712, France; tel: +33 (562) 21 6221; fax: +33 (562) 216720; Web:

The ATR consortium was formed by France's Aerospatiale Matra and Italy's Alenia in 1981 to undertake marketing and sales of a family of regional turboprops.

ATR 42/72


The 48-seat, P&WC PW100-powered, ATR 42 had its first flight in August 1984, and entered service in December 1985. The ATR 72, a stretched 64/74-seat derivative, was first flown in October 1988, and was certificated in September 1989.The baseline PW120/121-powered ATR 42-310/320 was joined by the PW127E-powered ATR 42-500 in 1995. The -500 features six-bladed Hamilton Sundstrand propellers and offers a higher cruising speed and an improved passenger cabin. After the initial PW124-powered ATR 72-200, ATR introduced the improved -210 with more-powerful PW127s. The current -210A version (now redesignated -500), which features six-bladed propellers, increased weights and a new interior, was certificated in January 1997.ATR 42/72s lack the active cabin noise reduction system of the competing Bombardier Dash 8, but ATR claims to achieve the same noise levels without it, and without the additional maintenance requirements.

Production: Aerospatiale Matra undertakes final assembly of the ATR 42/72 at its Toulouse plant. ATR delivered 31 aircraft in 1998, and production continues at a rate of around 3 per month. Xian Aircraft has an agreement covering production of ATR 72 rear fuselages in China and this could later be extended to cover a final assembly line, under the guidance of Aviation Industries of China.

Ordered: 605 (356 ATR 42 and 249 ATR 72) Delivered: 570 (344 ATR 42 and 226 ATR 72)


ATR failed to realise its goal of launching a family of regional jets during the first half of 1999, for service entry in 2003, and is now studying 75- and 90-plus-seat "second-generation" models that would be available by around 2005. As currently envisioned, the Airjet family would fill the gap between the ATR 42/72 turboprops and the Airbus consortium's smallest offering - the A318. The Airjet project has existed in various guises since 1996, when ATR was a partner with British Aerospace in Aero International (Regional). The reluctance of BAe to commit to development of the Airjet led to the disbanding of AI(R) in July 1998. ATR subsequently held joint venture talks with rivals Fairchild Aerospace and Embraer, but failed to reach agreement with either party.


Aviation Industries of China, 67 Jiao Nan Street (PO Box 33), Beijing 100712, China; tel: 86 (10) 6401 3332; fax: 86 (10) 6401 3648


Six subsidiaries of state-owned Aviation Industries of China released details last year of a planned regional jet family, and are seeking foreign risk-sharing partners. The consortium hopes to deliver the first examples in 2004, and has approached Taiwan's Aerospace Industrial Development to discuss a link-up. Two variants of the NRJ are envisioned, a 58-seat NRJ58 and stretched 76-seat NRJ76. The design has a four-abreast cabin layout, two aft-mounted engines, low wing and T-tail. Engine candidates include the General Electric CF34-8, Snecma/P&WC SPW16 and a derivative of the BMW Rolls-Royce BR700.

AVTEKAIR AvtekAir, 555 Airport Way, Suite A, Camarillo, California 93010, USA; tel: +1 (805) 482 2700; fax: +1 (805) 987 0068.

9019 Express

For several years, AvtekAir has been studying development of a stretched, 19-seat commuter version of the 400A all-composite, twin-turboprop business aircraft, dubbed the 9109 Express (previously dubbed 419 Express), under a supplemental type certificate. The Californian company has secured financing for US certification of the 400A from Finavitec of Finland, Air Rotor of Germany and Dow Chemical of the USA. A proof-of-concept 400A first flew in September 1984.

AYRES Ayres, PO Box 3090, One Ayres Way, Albany, Georgia 31707, USA; tel: +1 (912) 883 1440; fax: +1 (912) 439 9790. Web:

LM-200 Loadmaster

Ayres, the US agricultural aircraft manufacturer, launched the LM-200 Loadmaster programme in November 1996 with an order for 50 cargo versions from package carrier FedEx. Deliveries are due to begin in December 2000 ð around a year later than originally planned. FedEx has since converted options on an additional 25 aircraft to firm orders, and retains a further 175 options. The maiden flight of the LM-200 is scheduled for November. The Loadmaster is a high-winged design, powered by a 2,000kW AlliedSignal/Rolls-Royce CTP800-4T propulsion system - two turboshafts driving a single Hamilton Sundstrand five-bladed propeller through a GKN Westland combining gearbox. It will be offered in cargo, combi and 19-passenger configurations, and Ayres will also offer a rear-loading-ramp option and an amphibious version. Ayres completed its acquisition of Czech aircraft builder Let Kunovice in the second half of 1998. Following the purchase, the vertical stabiliser of the Czech manufacturer's L-410 utility aircraft and horizontal stabiliser of its L-610G regional airliner were incorporated into the LM-200 design. Fuselages for aircraft assembled in the USA will be manufactured by Ayres at its new plant in Dothan, Alabama. Those for Czech-assembled examples will be produced by Let, which will build the wing and empennage for all Loadmasters. The Czech plant is not due to begin delivering aircraft until March 2001, to allow additional time for European certification of the LM-200.

Production: Final assembly will be undertaken in Dothan, Alabama, and the Czech Republic. Deliveries to FedEx will begin the rate of two aircraft a month from the Dothan line and one a month from the Czech line. Total production in the USA will be four per month, while the Czech rate will depend on order intake.

Ordered: 97 Delivered: 0

BERIEV Beriev, 1 Aviatorov Square, Taganrog 347928, Russia; tel: +7 (863) 444 9 839; fax: +7 (863) 444 1454; telex: BETA SU.


The prototype Be-200, a scaled-down version of the A-40 military twinjet amphibian, was rolled out in September 1996. The maiden flight was due in October 1997, but did not take place until September 1998 after the partners managed to secure financing for the aircraft's Progress D-436TP turbofans. The prototype was ferried in April from the Irkutsk Aviation Production Organisation plant to Beriev's Taganrog base, where flight-testing resumed. The first water take-off and landings are scheduled for later this year at the Ghelendjik hydro-aviation test base on the Black Sea, followed by certification later this year and first deliveries in early 2000.As an amphibian firefighter, the swept-wing Be-200 is designed to carry 12t of water, but the aircraft is also intended for use as a 64- to 72-passenger utility amphibian. Betair, a consortium formed by Beriev, Taganrog and Irkutsk, markets the aircraft. Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations has ordered one aircraft and taken five options. Talks with South Korea on a possible 12-aircraft sale are on hold. Italy is among other countries believed to be interested in the aircraft. Beriev has held discussions with BMW Rolls-Royce on the possibility of re-engining the Be-200 with BR715 turbofans.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken by Irkutsk Aircraft Production Organisation.

Ordered: 1 Delivered: 0

BOEING Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, PO Box 3707, Seattle, Washington 98124-2207, USA; tel: +1 (206) 655 1131; fax: +1 (206) 655 7004; telex: 329430; Web:



Boeing continues to market its 717 100-seat regional jet, but has failed to attract any new orders so far this year. Company officials say detailed negotiations are under way with at least six airlines, which could lead to a doubling of the orderbook by the end of this year. The 717, a DC-9 derivative, was launched by McDonnell Douglas in October 1995 as the MD-95. The 717-200 flew for the first time in September 1998, and certification is scheduled for September, with delivery of the first aircraft to launch customer AirTran Airways due later that month. The manufacturer has completed studies of a short-field version with a lower flap setting, increased rudder throw and uprated BMW Rolls-Royce BR715 engines. Boeing is considering smaller and larger variants to extend the family. A four-frame reduction would create a 75/80-seat -100 version, while a larger -300 could providing two-class seating for 130 passengers. Boeing is also studying a corporate version of the basic -200 with auxiliary fuel tanks.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at the Douglas Products division plant in Long Beach, California, with components supplied by risk sharing partners throughout the USA, Europe and Asia. Production is due to reach 43 aircraft next year and 58 in 2001, with production peaking at 60 a year for 2002 and 2003.

Ordered: 115 Delivered: 0


The 737-600, which is smallest member of the Next Generation 737 family, provides Boeing with a 100-seat 737 variant to counter the Airbus A318. The 737NG was launched in November 1993, and has spawned four basic variants, seating 108-190 passengers (-600 to -900). Developed from the 737-300/400/500, the new family incorporates a larger wing and improved engines, which provide higher cruising speeds and longer range. The -600 is sized to replace the 737-500, seating 108 passengers in a two-class layout, or 132 in a one-class configuration. Next Generation 737s are powered by the new -7 derivative of the CFM56. The new models have an all-new flightdeck, incorporating a 777-style six-screen flat panel display system, but cockpit commonality with current-generation 737s is retained. Flight testing of the 737-600 began in January 1998, and Scandinavia's SAS took delivery of the first -600 in September 1998.

Production: The 737-600 is assembled at Boeing's Renton plant near Seattle alongside the other 737NG models. Of the 165 737s delivered in 1998, eight were -600s. The combined 737NG rate is running at 24 per month.

Ordered: 113 (-600) Delivered: 22 (-600)

BOMBARDIER Bombardier (Canadair), PO Box 6087, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3G9, Canada; tel: +1 (514) 855 5000; fax: +1 (514) 855 7903; Web:

Bombardier (de Havilland), Garratt Boulevard, Downsview, Ontario M3K 1Y5, Canada; tel: +1 (416) 633 7310; fax: +1 (416) 375 4546; telex: 0622128 DEHAV TOR.


Bombardier has sold the initial production batch of 50 CL-415 twin turboprop waterbombers and plans to build another 50 over the next several years. In November 1998 it renewed an agreement with China's Xian Aircraft (XAC) covering the supply of major structural components for the aircraft. Launched in October 1991 as a development of the piston-engined CL-215, the aircraft has been sold to agencies in Canada, Croatia, France and Italy. The CL-415, which is powered by P&WC PW123AFs, first flew in December 1993. A turboprop retrofit programme was offered for the CL-215 (as the 215T) and 17 aircraft were converted. A finite firefighting market and interest in "missionised" derivatives shown by Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sweden, Taiwan and Turkey, has prompted the manufacturer to consider introducing improvements such as better ice protection, autopilot certification, a larger aft cargo door, relocation of the auxiliary power unit in the wing fairing and increased take-off weights. A CL-415M multi-role derivative is already proposed for surveillance and coastal-patrol missions, featuring sensors such as a search radar and forward-looking infrared, as well as precision navigation and high-power communications equipment.

Production: Final assembly has been moved from Canadair's plant in Montreal, Quebec, to North Bay, Ontario. Production runs at about 10 aircraft a year.

CRJ Series 100/200

Bombardier first flew its 50-seat Canadair Regional Jet (CRJ), a derivative of the Challenger business jet, in May 1991, and the pioneering aircraft began airline operations in November 1992.The initial GE CF34-3A-powered CRJ Series 100 has been joined by longer-range versions, the 100ER and 100LR. The latest model, the Series 200, is equipped with improved CF34-3B1 engines and is also offered in ER and LR versions. Corporate-configured models are also offered, including the Canadair Special Edition (SE) and Corporate JetLiner.

Production: The final-assembly line is located at the Canadair plant in Montreal, Quebec. Seventy-five CRJ-100/200s were delivered in 1998, and Bombardier is increasing production from 7.5 to 9.5 aircraft a month for 2000.

CRJ Series 700


The CRJ Series 700, a stretched version of the 50-seat CRJ-100/200, had its maiden flight from Montreal's Dorval Airport on 27 May. Initial deliveries and service entry are scheduled for the first quarter of 2001. Flight testing will involve around 1,500h, to be flown with five test aircraft. The CRJ-700 will be certificated in two versions - the basic model and a growth-weight variant. A pair of fuselage plugs increase the aircraft's length by 4.72m. Wing root plugs increase the wing span by 1.83m, and wing area has been increased further by introducing leading edge extensions. The new model also features leading edge slats to improve high-lift performance. Changes from the basic CRJ include the introduction of more powerful GE CF34-8C1 engines, in re-designed nacelles. The main landing gear, wheels and brakes have been upgraded for the higher operating weights. The CRJ-700 programme was formally launched in January 1997 with four firm orders from Brit Air of France, plus commitments from other carriers for up to 67 aircraft, including 25 from American Eagle.

Ordered: (CRJ - all variants) 647 Delivered: 317

De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter

The P&WC 900kW PT6-powered Twin Otter was first flown in 1965 and the last of more than 830 was built in December 1988.Field Aviation of Canada offers an upgrade, including fitting four-bladed Hartzell propellers, which reduce external and internal sound levels. Cabin modifications include fire-retardant composite interior panels and new lightweight seats.

Delivered: 844 In service: 623

De Havilland Dash 7

The high-winged, four-engined, 50-seat Dash 7 was designed for short-field performance, and entered service in 1977. Initial production aircraft were Series 100 passenger or -101 cargo variants. These were superseded by the Series 150 and -151, offering higher operating weight and fuel capacity. Field Aircraft offers a gross-weight increase and cargo door and increased fuel-capacity retrofits.

Delivered: 113 In service: 103

Dash 8/Q Series

The Dash 8/Q Series family encompasses a four model family of twin turboprops spanning the 37- to 70-seat market sector. Since 1998, Bombardier has referred to the Dash 8 family as the Q Series, to signify availability of the NVS active noise and vibration reduction system. The 36-seat Dash 8-100, powered by twin P&WC PW120 turboprops, had its maiden flight in June 1983 and entered service in October 1984. A higher-powered version offering increased performance, the -200, was introduced in 1992.The 50/60-seat Dash 8-300, incorporating fuselage plugs forward and aft of the wing to produce a 3.35m stretch, was first flown in May 1987, with deliveries beginning in February 1989. The -300 also has a 1.5m greater wingspan, strengthened undercarriage and uprated P&W PW123 engines. The stretched 70-seat Dash 8-400 was launched in June 1995, and had its maiden flight in January 1998. The new model is powered by P&WC/PW150A turboprops driving six-bladed composite propellers. Risk-sharing partners in the Q400 programme include Sextant Avionique, which is supplying the integrated avionics suite, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which is responsible for the aircraft's forward-, mid- and aft-fuselage sections, wing-to-body fairing, and vertical and horizontal stabilisers. After 1,300h of flight testing, the aircraft received Canadian certification in June. Deliveries to launch customers Uni Air and SAS Commuter are expected to begin during the third quarter. The Ultra Electronics NVS is standard on the Q400, and is available on other Dash 8s and for retrofit for earlier models. It reduces cabin noise to around 77dB.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at the de Havilland plant in Downsview, Toronto. Thirty Dash 8s were delivered in 1998, and production continues at about two to three a month.

Ordered: 615 Delivered: 522


Bombardier is studying a new family of regional jets in the 90- to130-seat class, known as the BRJ-X. Two models are originally envisaged - the 95-seat BRJ-X-90 and the stretched, 115-seat BRJ-X-110 - but a larger 130-seater is also believed to be on the drawing board. Risk-sharing partners are to be selected by the end of this year and a launch decision is planned for early 2000, leading to a roll-out in the second quarter of 2002 and initial deliveries in late 2003.The design, first unveiled at the Farnborough air show in September 1998, features a five-abreast cabin and a low wing with podded engines. The BRJ-X-115, with an overall length of 36.7m, would be 3.5m longer than the BRJ-X-90. Both models have a wingspan of 28.6m, and require powerplants in the 20-22,000lb-thrust category. They would cruise at M0.8 at a maximum altitude of 37,000ft and offer a range of 3,300km.Bombardier has begun developing a fly-by-wire flight control system for possible incorporation in the BRJ-X.

BRITISH AEROSPACE British Aerospace Regional Aircraft, Woodford Aerodrome, Chester Road, Woodford, Cheshire SK7 1QR, UK; tel: +44 (161) 439 5050; fax: +44 (161) 955 3008. Web:

Avro RJ

Developed from the BAe146, the Avro RJ family has been offered in three sizes: the 70/82-seat RJ70, 85/100-seat RJ85 and 100/128-seat RJ100/RJ115. Principal changes from the 146 include the introduction of AlliedSignal LF507 engines and digital avionics. The first production Avro, an RJ85, was delivered to Crossair in April 1993.The RJ70, first flown in July 1992, has derated LF507s and carries 70 passengers in a five-abreast layout, or 82 six-abreast. Series production of the RJ70 has now ceased, with aircraft being built to order only. The stretched RJ85 was flown in March 1992 and offers 85 seats (five-abreast) or 100 seats (six-abreast). A further stretched model, the RJ100, offers seating for 100 or 112, respectively. A higher-capacity version of the RJ100, the RJ115, features mid-cabin emergency exits, allowing 128 passengers to be accommodated in a six-abreast layout. This version, which has no customers to date, also features increased fuel capacity and higher operating weights.

Production: Assembly is performed at BAe's Woodford plant. Twenty RJs were delivered in 1998, and production continues at a rate of 20-25 aircraft per year.

Ordered: 154 Delivered: 131


In February BAe Regional Aircraft gained authority to offer an upgraded, re-engined version of the Avro RJ, with the project name RJX. The RJX would introduce the all-new AlliedSignal AS977 turbofan as a replacement for the RJ's LF507. BAe says the RJX offers 17% extra range, 5% more climb thrust, a 15% less fuel consumption and 20% lower overall direct engine maintenance costs. A preliminary design review of the integrated powerplant system was completed in July by BAe, AlliedSignal and nacelle supplier GKN Westland. The RJX will also feature an upgraded cockpit, though a common type rating will be maintained with the existing Avro RJ family. A launch decision is expected by the end of this year, to be followed by certification of the AS977 in December 2000 and entry into service of the RJX in May 2001.

BAe 146

The four-engined BAe 146-100 had its first flight in September 1981 and entered service in May 1983 with now defunct Dan-Air of the UK. Production ceased in 1993 after 219 of the AlliedSignal (formerly Textron Lycoming) ALF502-powered aircraft had been delivered. The 146 was produced in three fuselage lengths (-100, -200 and -300) and BAe also developed a freighter version, the "QT". British Aerospace Asset Management Jets, which leases out many of the in-service 146s, developed a cockpit upgrade for early-build models based around an AlliedSignal GNS-XLS satellite-based navigation system.

Delivered 219 In service 216 Jetstream 31 (J31/32)

Developed from the Turboméca Astazou-powered Handley-Page Jetstream of the 1960s, the AlliedSignal TPE331-powered, 19-seat Jetstream 31 was first flown in March 1980 and entered service in 1982. An increased-power version, the Super 31 (or J32), entered service in 1988. J31 production ceased in 1993.The J32EP, for Enhanced Performance (EP), is a BAe Asset Management Turboprops upgrade programme to improve hot-and-high and short-field performance. The modifications were certificated by in July 1997. The package enables the J32EP to carry an extra 360kg, or four more passengers, from "extreme hot-and-high" airfields.

Delivered: 383 (plus 64 HP Jetstreams) In service: 355 (plus 42 HP Jetstreams)

Jetstream 41A

30-seat stretched development of the Jetstream 31, the AlliedSignal TPE331-14-powered Jetstream 41 was first flown in September 1991 and entered service in November 1992. After initial sales success, orders tailed off and in May 1997 BAe announced that it was closing the J41 assembly line in Prestwick, Scotland. Production of remaining aircraft was completed at the end of 1997, with final deliveries during 1998.

Delivered: 100 In service: 99

ATP/Jetstream 61A

Stretched, re-engined and updated development of the BAe 748, the twin-turboprop P&WC PW126-powered ATP ("Advanced Turboprop") had its first flight in August 1986, and deliveries began in May 1988. The aircraft, which typically seats 64-68 passengers, was originally produced at Woodford - but in 1992 production was moved to Prestwick, and the aircraft updated under the new name Jetstream 61. Production ceased before any J61s were sold, when BAe linked with ATR to form AI(R). British World Airlines, which took four of the last five ATPs off the line, has configured its aircraft so that they can be converted for cargo operations.

Delivered: 62 In service: 62

BAe (HS) 748

The twin-engined BAe 748 turboprop was first produced by Hawker Siddeley under the "Avro 748" name, and the first example was flown in June 1960. The aircraft was later designated the "HS748" and eventually the BAe 748. The initial production version of the 50-seat Rolls-Royce Dart-powered aircraft, the Srs 1/1A, was superseded by the improved Srs 2/2A and 2B. The final production version was the Super 2B , with improved flightdeck and interior. A military version, the Andover, had a rear loading ramp and kneeling undercarriage. Some 90 748s were produced under licence by Hindustan Aeronautics in India.

Production: Ceased in 1988, when the aircraft was replaced by the ATP.

Delivered: 380 (including Andovers and HAL-built aircraft) In service: 251


The One-Eleven twinjet was flown for the first time in August 1963, and entered service in April 1965. More than 120 of the 241 One-Elevens delivered remain in service, more than half in operation in Europe, although under threat from Chapter III noise rules. European Aviation of Bournemouth in the UK, which owns the largest single fleet of the type, has developed a Stage 3 hushkit for the aircraft in conjunction with Quiet Technologies of Florida. The kit is similar in configuration to the One-Eleven's existing Stage 2 kit, but features a new mixer, with additional lobes.

Delivered: 232 (see also Romaero) In service: 131

BRITTEN-NORMAN Britten-Norman, Bembridge Airport, Isle of Wight PO35 5PR, UK; tel: +44 (1983) 872 511; fax: +44 (1983) 873324; telex: 86277/86866 PBNBEMG. Web:

BN-2B Islander

The Islander first flew in June 1965, and entered service in August 1967. The production piston-engined model is available with either two 195kW Textron Lycoming O-540s or two 225kW IO-540s.Britten-Norman (BN) now supports 860 in-service aircraft and 385 operators. In July 1998 ownership transferred from Switzerland's Oerlikon Bührle to Litchfield Continental.

BN-2T Turbine Islander

In August 1980 BN flew an Islander with 300kW Rolls-Royce Allison 250-B17C turboprops. The BN-2T has tip tanks, while cruise speed and range are substantially increased. The latest version is the BN2T-4S, or Defender 4000, a surveillance and patrol aircraft. The first was delivered to the Irish Police in August 1997. The aircraft is powered by Allison 250-B17Fs, flat rated at 300kW, and has an EFIS and new nose, stretched fuselage and larger wing.

Production: Manufacture and assembly is subcontracted to Romaero of Bucharest, Romania, with completion in Bembridge.

BN-2A Mk3 Trislander


A stretched development of the piston- engined Islander, the 18-seat Trislander features a third, fin-mounted engine. The first aircraft was flown in September 1970, and deliveries commenced to UK Channel Islands-based Aurigny Air Services in June 1971.Series production was terminated in 1984, but several unfinished kits were passed to International Aviation of Florida, which obtained a licence to market the kits as the Tri-Commutair. Three aircraft were produced before the project faltered, the kits eventually passing to Guernsey-based Anglo Normandy Aero-engineering in late 1995.Earlier this year, BN has relaunched production of the Trislander following an order from China Northern Airlines for three aircraft. Deliveries are due between September next year and January 2001. BN believes there are good prospects for more sales worldwide. A single-turboprop derivative of the Trislander is being proposed by New Zealand-based Integrity Aircraft, which is discussing its plans with BN. The aircraft would have an AlliedSignal TPE331 in the centre engine position. The wing-mounted piston engines would be eliminated. Integrity has obtained a licence from BN to develop the new derivative, which it intends to call the "Integrity". The company believes the aircraft would provide a cost-effective alternative to Cessna's 208 Caravan I. It would be assembled at Romaero in Romania.

CANADIAN AEROSPACE GROUP Canadian Aerospace Group International, 5353 John Lucas Drive, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7L 6A8; tel : +1 905 331 0355; fax: 905 331 0356

Twin Panda

Canadian Aerospace Group (CAG) markets a Westernised version of the Chinese Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Y-12 19-passenger turboprop aircraft (see separate Harbin entry). The Twin Panda uses the same airframe as the US-certificated Y-12-IV, but more powerful P&WC PT6A-34 engines, upgraded avionics and interior and a strengthened landing gear. Options include a flat-panel director, autopilot and flight management/global positioning system. In December 1998 Interdoc Aerospace of South Africa ordered five Twin Pandas in a deal valued at $21 million. Another contract has been secured from a Brazilian transportation consortium for 15 aircraft.

Production: Aircraft are manufactured "green" in China and completed in Canada. Deliveries are expected to begin later in 1999.

CASA CASA, Avenida de Aragon 404, PO Box 193, Madrid 28022, Spain; tel: +34 91 585 7000; fax: +34 91 585 7666; Web: email:

C212 Aviocar

First flown in 1971, the C212-100 was offered originally as a freighter/commuter. The -200 series, introduced in 1979, has more powerful AlliedSignal TPE331-10 turboprops and strengthened landing gear. The -300, first flown in 1984, seats 23-26 passengers. CASA launched the latest Aviocar, the C212-400, in June 1997, after it was first flown in April 1997. Powered by re-rated 820kW TPE331-12RJs, the -400 version is 400kg heavier, with h EFIS and cabin improvements.

Production: The C-212 is produced in Spain (as the Series 300) and in Indonesia (as the Series 200 - see IPTN).

Ordered: 447 (including Series 200) Delivered: 429


The GE CT7-9-powered CN235 turboprop, produced as a military utility transport and 45-seat regional airliner, was first flown in November 1983. The first production airliner version was delivered by IPTN in late 1986, followed by CASA's first delivery in February 1987.The latest version - the CN235-300 - is powered by uprated CT7-9C3s, and was certificated by the US FAA in July 1998. The powerplant offers a 5% improvement on hot-and-high takeoff performance.

Production: Final assembly is by CASA in Seville, Spain, and by IPTN in Bandung, Indonesia. The last civil delivery was made in 1993.

Ordered: 256 (including IPTN and military versions of the aircraft) Delivered: 179

CESSNA Cessna Aircraft, PO Box 7706, One Cessna Boulevard, Wichita, Kansas 67277-7706, USA; tel: +1 316 517 6000 Fax: +1 316 517 6640; Web:

208 Caravan I

The 208 Caravan I single-turboprop utility aircraft was first flown in December 1982, and was certificated in October 1984. Around 1,000 of the aircraft, most powered by a 520kW P&WC PT6A, have now been delivered, including more than 500 stretched 208B Grand Caravans. Almost half of the worldwide fleet is used for scheduled freight or passenger operations with 65% of the fleet is flying in the USA. The uprated 580kW PT6A-114A was certificated in the Caravan in April 1998. This has boosted floatplane orders, which now account for 10-15% of output (floats cannot be fitted to the B model version of the aircraft).A "Twin-Pack" version of the Caravan, the Pathfinder 21, has been developed by Soloy and is described separately.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at the Cessna plant in Wichita, Kansas. The production rate remains at around 100 units per year.



See Raytheon Beech King Air 200

EMBRAER Embraer, Avenue Brigadeiro Faria Lima 2.170, Sao José dos Campos SP, 12227-901, Brazil; tel: +55 (12) 345 1000; fax: +55 (12) 321 8238; Web:

EMB-110 Bandeirante

Bandeirante production ran from 1972 to 1990, by which time around 500 aircraft had been delivered. Updated, increased take-off weight versions of the 19/21-seater twin-turboprop were produced as the P1/41 passenger/ cargo version and the all-passenger -P2/42.

Delivered: 500 In service: 412

EMB-120 Brasilia

Production of the Brasilia twin-turboprop started in 1983, with the first example of the P&WC PW118A-powered 30-seater being flown in July that year. Deliveries began in August 1985 to Atlantic Southeast Airlines. The improved EMB-120ER entered service in 1992, with increased weights and range, while the current EMB-120ER Advanced features interchangeable leading edges on all flying surfaces; reduced interior noise; increased, 700kg, cargo capacity; and improved flaps. Other versions under development are the EMB-120 Cargo (4,000kg payload) and Combi (19 passengers with 1,100kg of cargo).

Production: Final assembly is at Sao José dos Campos. Embraer delivered 14 Brasilias in 1998, and production continues at the rate of around 12 aircraft per year.

Ordered: 353 Delivered: 348



The RJ-145 was launched in June 1989 as the EMB-145, and re-designated in 1997. The first example was flown in August 1995 and the 50-seat regional jet entered service with Continental Express in early 1997 following US certification in December 1996.Powered by two 7,000lb-thrust Rolls-Royce Allison AE3007A turbofans, the ERJ-145 is based on a stretched EMB-120 fuselage, a revised tail and a new supercritical swept wing. In addition to the basic aircraft, subsequent versions include the extended-range -145ER, powered by AE3007-A1s, and the longer-range -145LR, with AE3007-A3s.Embraer launched the short-fuselage 37-seat derivative of the -145, dubbed the ERJ -135, in 1997. The first example, which was created by modifying the first ERJ-145 prototype, was flown in July 1998. The first ERJ-135 delivery was made to launch customer, Continental Express, in late-July.

Production: Combined ERJ-135/145 production at Sao José dos Campos is 10 aircraft a month, to be increased to 12 by December. The monthly rate could rise to 16 within 18 months, depending on order intake. Sixty aircraft were produced last year.

Ordered: 432 (293 ERJ-145/139 ERJ-135) Delivered: 133 (132 ERJ-145/1 ERJ-135)


Embraer launched its RJ-170/190 family of 70- to108-seat regional jets in June after securing a launch order for up to 160 aircraft (including options) from Swiss carrier Crossair. Three basic versions of the twinjet are offered, all of which share the same four-abreast fuselage cross-section. The configuration selected by the Brazilian manufacturer has a low wing with podded engines. The GE CF34-8E will power the ERJ -170, while a more powerful derivative currently under development - the CF34-8E-10 - will be used on the -190.The ERJ-170 will seat 70 passengers and the first example is due to be handed over to Crossair in December 2002. The 108-seat ERJ-190-200 will follow in June 2004, with the family being rounded out in June 2005 with the entry into service of the 98-seat ERJ-190-100. The two -190 variants feature a slightly larger wing than that used on the -170.

Production: Embraer plans to build a new factory at Sao José dos Campos to produce the ERJ-170/190 at an initial rate of six a month from 2002. Risk-sharing partners are being sought to produce the airframes, with work divided into two centre fuselage sections, the aft fuselage and empennage, while the wing work will be shared by three suppliers.

Ordered: 70 (40 ERJ-170/30 ERJ-190) Delivered: 0

FAIRCHILD AEROSPACE 10823 NE Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas 78216, USA; tel: +1 (210) 824 9421; fax: +1 (210) 804 7785; Web:

Dornier division, PO Box 1103, 82230 Wesslig, Germany; tel: +49 (81) 53 30 0; fax: +49 (81) 53 30 20 07.


Production of the Dornier 228 commenced in 1981, with the first 15-seat Series 100 being flown in March 1981. The first stretched 19-seat Series 200 followed in May 1981. Powered by AlliedSignal TPE331 turboprops, early variants of the 228 include the increased gross-weight -101 and -201 models, and the higher payload/range -202. The 228 is also used in numerous utility roles. The extended-range Dornier 228-212 was the last European version to be certificated, in 1989. It can carry a payload of 2,200kg over 900km. The -212s TPE331-5A engines, with an increased take-off rating of 580kW, combine with under-fuselage strakes to improve short-field performance. Other modifications include strengthened fuselage and wing, and modernised avionics. A second assembly line has existed in India since 1983, at Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) in Kanpur (See HAL entry). Production of the 228 in Germany has now ceased.

Ordered: 271 (including HAL) Delivered: 267 (including HAL)


The 33-seat Dornier 328-100 was first flown in December 1991, and certificated by European and US authorities in October and November 1993. The improved -110 entered series production in 1993, and all original -100s were upgraded. The P&WC PW119C-powered -120 and -130 added further enhancements such as additional flap settings. Although a jet version was launched in 1996, Fairchild plans to continue production of the 328 turboprop. Production Final assembly is in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.

Ordered: 109 Delivered: 101


Skyway Airlines became the first customer to take delivery of the 328JET in early August, when it received two of the five it has on firm order. The type, powered by two P&WC PW306B turbofans, gained European and US certification in July. Fairchild launched the 328JET in 1996. The four-aircraft test and demonstration programme accumulated over 1,500h following the maiden flight in January 1998.The 328JET has significantly improved airfield, speed and range performance compared with its turboprop-powered predecessor. A corporate version, the Envoy 3, is also offered. Atlantic Coast Airlines in July became the conditional launch customer for the 42/44-seat stretch version - the 428JET. The aircraft, which will feature a larger wing and more powerful P&WC PW308 turbofans, is due to enter service in August 2002. To cope with the demands on its engineering resources resulting from simultaneous development of the 728JET family (see next entry), Fairchild has entered into a partnership with Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI). The Israeli company will carry out systems engineering and integration, flight testing and certification support work for the 428JET programme. A possible extension to the contract under which IAI would build the fuselage for the 428JET, and even undertake final assembly in Tel Aviv, is currently under negotiation.

Production: The 328JET is assembled at Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany. Wing manufacture is being moved to Fairchild's production site in San Antonio in the USA. Fuselages are supplied by Aermacchi of Italy.

Ordered: 35 Delivered: 2



Lufthansa placed the launch order for the 728JET family in April with a commitment for up to 120 aircraft for its CityLine commuter subsidiary. Fairchild announced the commercial launch of the 728JET family at the 1998 Berlin air show. The US-German company expects to invest $1.2 billion in developing the new family. The baseline 70-seat 728JET is scheduled to have its first flight in March 2001, and enter service in May 2002. The 95/105-seat 928JET stretch is due to begin revenue operations in November 2003, while first deliveries of the 55-seat 528JET are expected in late 2004. Seating will be five-abreast. The 528JET and 728JET will be powered by the GE CF34-8D, while the 928JET is likely to require a more powerful derivative currently referred to as the -8DXX.High gross-weight and extended-range versions of each of the three aircraft models are under development. CASA of Spain will build the wing and empennage, while other suppliers include Honeywell (avionics), BFGoodrich (undercarriage and fuel system), Parker (Hydraulics), AlliedSignal (auxiliary power unit), Hamilton Sundstrand (electrical system) and Lucas (fly-by-wire flight controls).

Production: Final assembly will be undertaken at Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany.

Ordered: 85 Delivered: 0


The 19-seat Metro was developed by Swearingen from the Merlin twin-turboprop, and first flown in August 1969. The initial production version was superseded by the Metro II in 1975, and the III in 1981, all powered by the AlliedSignal TPE331. An increased take-off weight Metro 23 was introduced in 1994.Fairchild developed an all-cargo version, the Expediter, with a reinforced cabin floor and a reduced empty weight, permitting a maximum cargo payload of more than 2,170kg. The company also developed a Metro 23 with an EFIS for the US Air Force, dubbed the 23E, of which it produced 39. Although now offered as an option to civil customers, the company says few have taken up the EFIS.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at Fairchild's San Antonio plant in Texas.

Ordered: 609 Delivered: 603

EXPLORER AIRCRAFT c/o Aeronautical Engineers Australia, PO Box 38, Willetton, Western Australia, Australia; tel: +61 8 9414 701; fax: +61 8 9414 7022; email:;

Explorer 500/750

Explorer Aircraft, based in Denver, Colorado, is developing a new single-engined family of utility transport aircraft, designed originally in Perth Australia by Aeronautical Engineers Australia. The company will complete its start-up business plan by September, which could include setting up a production site in Canada. The Explorer is a high-wing single-engined design, aimed to fill the niche between piston singles and larger turboprops, such as the Cessna Caravan. The Model 350R proof-of-concept version first flew in January 1998, and will provide the basis for larger versions, including the 10-seat -500 and the 16-seat -750. The Explorer 500R will be offered with the 450kW Orenda OE600 V8 piston engine, while the 500T and 750T will be available with versions of the P&WC PT6A turboprop.

Production: Explorer is considering production sites in the USA and Canada, but the final location could be influenced by the engine suppliers, both of which are based in Canada.

FOKKER Fokker Aircraft, PO Box 7600, 1117ZJ Schiphol Cost, Netherlands; tel: +31 (20) 605 2730; fax: +31 (20) 605 2929.

Fokker declared bankruptcy in March 1996, and despite talks on reviving or selling the company no backer was secured. Production of Fokker aircraft finally ceased during 1997.Spares and support services were transferred to Fokker Aviation, a new company owned by Stork of the Netherlands, which is continuing to support the existing Fokker fleet. Since then new backers have emerged with a plan to revive the company as Rekkof Restart (see entry).

Fokker/Fairchild F27/F-27/FH-227

The F27 twin turboprop had its first flight in November 1955 and production of civil versions continued until 1985. Several versions of the R-R Dart-powered 40/50-seater were developed, including passenger/cargo and freighter variants and a stretched Mk500.A Fairchild-built version, the F-27, was produced under licence in the USA and a US-developed stretched derivative, the 48/52-seat FH-227, was also produced.

Delivered: 787 (580 F27s, 29 F-27s and 78 FH-227s) In service: 444

Fokker 50/60

The P&WC PW125B-powered, 46/58-seat Fokker 50 was developed from the F27 Mk500, and first flew in December 1985. Improvements included a new EFIS flightdeck, twin-wheel nose gear and all-composite, six-bladed Dowty propellers. Deliveries began in August 1987. The type formed the basis of Fokker's PropJetLine family of passenger, utility and special-mission aircraft, the final variant of which was the Fokker 50 High Performance, produced in both passenger and utility versions for improved hot-and-high operations. Two PW127Bs give 10% increased power. The Fokker 60, a utility version of the Fokker 50 with a 1.62m fuselage stretch, was launched in February 1994 for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, which placed orders for four.

Delivered: 212 In service: 210


The 65/85-seat F28 twinjet was first flown in May 1967 and entered service in 1969. Production ceased in 1987 after 241 aircraft had been delivered. Four basic versions were produced (Mks 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000), all powered by R-R Spey Mk555s.Fokker Aviation has proposed a R-R Tay 620 re-engining programme for the F28, which involves a 1.14m fuselage plug forward of the wings to offset the increased engine weight. Cost is around $9 million, and the modification provides a claimed 15-20% increase in range and a 12-20% reduction in fuel consumption. Stage III Technologies of Las Vegas has developed a hushkit for the F28 based on one produced for the Spey-powered Gulfstream II and III. Although the F28 is exempt from US Stage 3 noise regulations as its maximum take-off weight falls below 34,050kg, an exemption does not apply in Europe.

Delivered: 241 In service: 188

Fokker 70/100

A R-R Tay 620-powered development of the F28, the 107-seat Fokker 100 had its maiden flight in November 1986 and entered service with Swissair in March 1988. The aircraft was progressively developed, with the more powerful Tay 650 being adopted, along with higher weights and additional fuel capacity. The 79-seat Fokker 70, which is 4.6m shorter, was first flown in April 1993, and Indonesia's Sempati Air became the first airline to operate the aircraft, in March 1995. The two models were jointly marketed as the Fokker JetLine. The development of a stretched, 130-seat, derivative with a new wing and engines, dubbed the Fokker 130, had been proposed and was central to any take-over talks following the Dutch manufacturer's collapse in 1996. Rekkof Restart has emerged with plans to revive the Fokker 70/100 production lines (see entry).

Delivered: 324 (47 Fokker 70/277 Fokker 100) In service: 321 (47 Fokker 70/274 Fokker 100)

HARBIN (HAMC) Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing, No 15 Youxie Street, Pingfan District, Harbin, 150066, China; tel: +86 (451) 650 2061; fax: +86 (451) 650 2061; telex: 87082 HAF CN; email:


The first Y-12 I was flown in 1982.The more powerful Y-12 II, with 460kW P&WC PT6A-27s, flew in 1984 and received domestic certification in 1985.Three models of the aircraft are now available: the Y-12 I (Chinese utility interior), the Y-12 II (which has a range of Western avionics options), and the updated Y-12 IV with winglets, strengthened undercarriage and PT6A-27 engines, which received US certification in April 1995.Canadian Aerospace Group offers a Westernised version of the Y-12 IV known as the Twin Panda (see separate entry).

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS HAL, PO Box 5150, Bangalore, 560 001, India; tel: +91 (812) 268003; fax: +91 (812) 2688758 or 577533.

Dornier 228

Indian manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics has built Fairchild Dornier 228s under licence and has been in wide-ranging talks with other manufacturers, notably in China and Indonesia, about the possibilities of producing other types.

Production: Indian 228 assembly was undertaken at HAL's Kanpur division. HAL has been producing 228-201s since 1983, initially from kits supplied from Germany.

Delivered: 29

IBIS AEROSPACE Ibis Aerospace (Aero Vodochody), 250-70 Odolena Voda, Prague 25070, Czech Republic; tel: +42 (2) 685 8041-9; fax: +42 (2) 687 2505


Two versions of the Ae-270, which seats between six and nine passengers, are being developed: the Ae-270W, powered by a Czech 580kW Walter Motorlet M601F engine, with Czech avionics and no autopilot; and the retractable-undercarriage, pressurised, Ae-270P, with a 635kW P&WC PT6A-42A driving a constant-speed propeller, and AlliedSignal Bendix/King avionics incorporating an autopilot. Aero and AIDC and are assembling five prototype Ae-270s and the first is expected to have its maiden flight later this year. Czech certification is planned for early 2001. US approval is expected to follow six months later under FAR 23, for single-pilot operations of the aircraft.

Production: Taichung-based AIDC is building the wing, and has responsibility for the aircraft's landing gear. Ibis is manufacturing the fuselage and empennage, as well as undertaking final assembly.

ILYUSHIN Ilyushin Design Bureau, Leningradsky Prospekt 45G, Moscow, 125190, Russia; tel: +7 (095) 943 8121; fax: +7 (095) 212 2132; telex: 411956 SOKOL. Email:


Ilyushin has Russian Government approval to proceed with development of this new high-winged, twin-turboprop, 40-seater. It is intended as an An-38 replacement.

Production: Planned to be at KUMAPP at Kumertau.


Uzbekistan Airways took delivery of the first production Ilyushin Il-114 regional aircraft from the Tashkent Aircraft Production factory (TAPO) in July 1998, but remains the only customer, with the aircraft still to attract its first export order.TAPO has secured funding for continued Il-114 production from Russia's Incombank, while Russia and Uzbekistan have agreed to market the aircraft jointly. Aeroflot has so far failed to renew a letter of intent signed in December 1997 to take 20 of the type by 2000.Also hampering sales is the short service life of the aircraft's two 1,860kW Klimov TV7-117 turboprops, which stands at only 800h. Ilyushin claims this will rise to 6,000h in 1999. The cargo version has a rear cargo door and a maximum take-off weight of 23,500kg. With a 6,500kg payload, the aircraft has a range of 1,000km.Ilyushin began flight testing a P&WC PW127F-powered version of the Il-114, called the -100, in January, and Russian certification is expected later this year. Several Russian airlines including Aeroflot, are seen as prospective customers and South East Asian carriers are also being targeted.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken by the Tashkent Aircraft Production Organisation in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The production rate is intended to be 100 aircraft a year.

IPTN IPTN, PO Box 3752 JKT, 14th Floor, Bumi Daya Plaza Building, Jalan Imam Bonjol 61, Jakarta 10310, Indonesia; tel: +62 (21) 322 247; fax: +62 (21) 310 0081. Web: Email:


IPTN produces the C-212 under licence from CASA of Spain (see entry).


See CASA entry.

Orders: 94 Deliveries: 38


Trumpeted as the first indigenously-produced Indonesian regional airliner, the prototype 50-seat N250 had its maiden flight in August 1995, but development of the twin turboprop is now almost at a standstill as IPTN seeks funding for the programme. In June 1998 IPTN delayed certification of the N250-100 when Indonesia's Government withdrew financial support. At the start of 1999, the company embarked on a programme to cut 5,200 jobs - a third of its workforce. IPTN is planning to spin off its helicopter, defence and space systems businesses into subsidiaries as part of its restructuring effort, as a prelude to eventual privatisation. IPTN seeks an outside investor to keep the N250 programme alive. The company says the project continues on a low development level. Production of the third prototype is at a standstill. Orignally developed to meet the country's requirement for a large number of new regional aircraft, the N250 is powered by two 2,400kW R-R Allison AE2100C turboprops and features a fly-by-wire flight-control system. The second prototype was the first full-size N250-100, a stretched 64/68-seat variant, and had its first flight in December 1996, some eight months behind schedule. In 1997 the FAA refused to accept the second prototype for certification purposes due to poor documentation. IPTN then enlisted a team of European aerospace consultants to try to help secure JAA type certification of the N250.

Production: Assembly of the prototype N250s were undertaken at IPTN's plant in Bandung, where the assembly line will be located.

Ordered: 20 Delivered: 0


See Part 2 of directory next week

ISRAEL AIRCRAFT INDUSTRIES Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI), Ben-Gurion International Airport 70100, Israel; tel: +972 (3) 935 3343; fax: +972 (3) 935 8278; Web: email:


IAI began designing the Airtruck twin-turboprop freighter several years ago to meet a requirement from US package carrier FedEx for a new-generation freighter to replace Boeing 727s and Fokker F27s on hub feeder services. FedEx had a requirement for around 100 aircraft, but it is thought this has been reduced. IAI is seeking more sales to enable it to launch the aircraft. The company is known to need more customers to ensure the freighter can be produced for a unit price within FedEx's limit of $10 million. The Israeli company is also seeking risk-sharing subcontractors to manufacture major sections of the aircraft. The Airtruck's cabin cross-section is similar to that of the Lockheed Martin C-130 and is compatible with standard 2.4 x2.4m M1pallets. The baseline Airtruck C-5Wa can accommodate five M1 pallets, and a larger version with greater payload capacity is also being studied.

KELOWNA FLIGHTCRAFT Kelowna Flightcraft, 1-5655 Kelowna Airport, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1S1, Canada; tel: +1 250 765 148; fax: +1 250 765 1489

Convair 5800

Kelowna Flightcraft flew its prototype stretched, re-engined conversion of the piston-engined Convair 340 freighter in February 1992.A turboprop conversion of the Convair 340 and 440 was originally developed in the 1960s, creating the Allison 501-engined 580. US and Canadian certification of Kelowna's modification was received in December 1993 and the aircraft entered cargo service in January 1994.The Allison 501-powered Model 5800 is a modification of the Convair 340, 440 or 580, with a 4.25m fuselage stretch.

LET Let Aeronautical Works, Uherske Hradiste, Kunovice 1177, CR-686 04, Czech Republic; tel: +420 (632) 51 11 11; fax: +420 (632) 56 41 02; Wed: ; Email:

Let Kunovice was acquired by Ayres Corporation of the USA in 1998.

L-420 (L-410 UVP-E20)

The first flight of the 19-seat Let L-420, an upgraded version of the L-410 (of which over 1,000 were built), took place in November 1993. The earlier Walter M601E engines have been replaced by M601Fs, providing an increased take-off rating of 580kW.The unpressurised aircraft is derived from the L-410 UVP-E20.


Let has decided to power its proposed L-430 stretched version of the L-410 light transport with P&WC PT6 turboprops. The L-430 is now being studied by the company. It will be a higher all-up-weight version of the 19-seat L-410, offering a greater cargo capacity.



The 40-seat L-610M, powered by 1,360kW Walter M602s, was first flown in December 1988. Work on this aircraft has been suspended, as the company focuses on the certification of a Westernised version, the L-610G, which is powered by two 1,300kW GE CT7-9D turboprops. It first flew in December 1992 and has Rockwell Collins avionics, including an EFIS, weather radar and autopilot.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken in Kunovice.

MAPO MAPO MiG, 71st Botkinsky Drive, Moscow, 125040, Russia; tel: +7 (095) 207 0366; fax: +7 (095) 924 2489


First announced in 1993, the MiG-110 is a convertible passenger/cargo aircraft and is vying with the Sukhoi S-80 to succeed the Antonov An-26 turboprop. The 39-seater will be able to operate into remote areas and from semi-prepared runways. The aircraft features an unusual twin-boom tail design, with a rear cargo door and ramp. A full-scale mock-up of the aircraft is being completed at MAPO's plant near Moscow. Powered by two 2,465kW Klimov TV7-117S turboprops driving Stoopino six-bladed propellers, the aircraft features an inverted gull-wing configuration which enables a shorter landing gear and an optimum wheel track to be used. Other derivatives are envisaged to follow the baseline Klimov-powered model, including one with Western engines and avionics.

NATIONAL AEROSPACE LABORATORIES (NAL) National Aerospace Laboratories, PO Box 1779, Kodihalli, Bangalore, 560 017, India; tel: +91 80 527 0584; fax: +91 80 5260862; Web:


"Saras" is the name given to the light-transport aircraft project of India's state-owned, Bangalore-based National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL).In mid-1999, the Indian Government cleared Rs1.3 billion ($30 million) for the manufacture of the Saras. Following cabinet approval in June, NAL and its partners will begin work on two prototypes, the first of which could fly during the second half of next year with production beginning in early 2003.Designed for short take-off and landing operations, the Saras will be powered by two P&WC PT6A turboprops mounted in pusher configuration on the rear fuselage. Its uses include a commuter airliner, aerial surveillance and executive transport. The design, in which Russia's Myasishchev design bureau has participated, dates to the early 1990s, but the programme stalled because of government insistence on the need for industry participation. Industry partners for the development phase include Hindustan Aeronautics and Taneja Aerospace.

Production: The aircraft is to be built by HAL at its Bangalore site. A domestic market for at least 200 aircraft is forecast over the next 10 years.

PILATUS AIRCRAFT Pilatus, Flugzeugwerke, Stans CH6371, Switzerland; tel: +41 (41) 619 6111; fax: +41 (41) 619 6111; fax: +41 (41) 610 3351; Web:; email:; telex: 866202.

PC-6 Turbo Porter

The current version of the Turbo Porter, the PC-6-B2-H4, is powered by a single P&WC PT6A-27 turboprop. It was introduced in mid-1985, superseding the piston-powered Porter. More than 500 of this robust, short take-off/landing, utility aircraft have been sold.



The PC-12, a business/utility aircraft, was flown in May 1991, FAA certificated in 1994 and deliveries began in late 1994. The six/nine-seat aircraft is pressurised and powered by a single P&WC PT6A-67B, flat-rated to 895kW. It has a 30,000ft ceiling and 265kt cruise speed. Pilatus has experienced a surge in orders, partly due to the decision by international aviation authorities, including those of Australia, Canada and the USA, to lift their long-standing ban on commercially operated single-engined turboprops. PC-12s are increasingly used to serve remote destinations by regional airlines including Canada's Kelner Airways, the first commuter carrier in North America to operate the aircraft.Community Air, a California-based start-up carrier with orders for 11 PC-12s and options on a further 21 failed to get off the ground.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at Stans. Pilatus delivered 51 PC-12s in 1998, and has increased annual production to 60 aircraft.

Ordered: 195 Delivered: 165

PZL-MIELEC PZL-Mielec Aircraft, ul Wojska Polskiego 3, Mielec, PL39300, Poland; tel: +48 (17) 788 7819; fax: +48 (17) 788 7226


The Antonov An-2 single-piston-engined utility biplane, with capacity for up to 12 passengers, is still produced under licence at PZL. Some 12,000 examples have been built for use worldwide, but most have gone to the former Eastern bloc countries. Uzbekistan Airways' Tashkent repair base has developed a restoration programme for the An-2 and its Shvetsov ASh-62 piston engine, and expects to overhaul around 50 annually.


In the early 1990s, PZL developed its own version of the An-28, the M-28 Skytruck, having produced a re-engined, WSK-PZL Rzeszow TWD-10B-powered An-28 under licence since 1986. The Skytruck has P&WC PT6A-65B turboprops, Hartzell five-blade propellers and AlliedSignal Bendix/King avionics. The first flight was made in July 1993 and Polish certification was gained in March 1994.PZL has also considered restarting production of the An-28 re-engined with two 750kW AlliedSignal TPE331-10/11s.

RAYTHEON AIRCRAFT Raytheon Aircraft, 10511 E Central, PO Box 85, Wichita, Kansas 67201-0085, USA; tel: +1 (316) 676 8674; fax: +1 (316) 676 5687; Web:

Beech King Air B200 and 350

Introduced in 1981, the B200 replaced the earlier 200-model King Air and is powered by two P&WC PT6A-42s, offering improved cruise and altitude performance and higher maximum zero-fuel weight. Designed primarily as a business aircraft, the King Air's range and speed make it attractive for use as an airliner on low-density, long-distance, routes. All models can be fitted with optional cargo doors, including the top-of-the-range King Air 350. This version, which first flew in September 1988, has a 0.9m longer fuselage and 1.06m greater wingspan greater than the B200.Phoenix-based Commuter Air Technology offers a 13-seat airliner conversion of the Beech 200, dubbed the CATPASS 250. The programme was launched in 1986, by taking used King Air airframes and modifying them for airline operations.

Production: Final assembly at the Raytheon plant in Wichita, Kansas.

Delivered: 5,000 (including military versions) 82 (CATPASS conversions)

Beech 99

Production of the P&WC PT6A-powered twin-turboprop Beech 99 ceased in 1986 after 239 aircraft had been completed since deliveries started in 1968. The 15-seat airliner was developed from the Beech Queen Air, the first flight being made in 1966.

Delivered: 239 In service: 171

Beech 1900

A development of the King Air, the 19-seat, P&WC PT6A-powered, Beech 1900C was first flown in September 1982, and deliveries began in February 1984.Production of the 1900C ceased in 1991 when Beech switched to the 1900D, which features a cabin height increase of 360mm, to 1.8m, providing 28% more interior volume and "stand-up" headroom. The 1900D entered service in 1991 in with Mesa Airlines. The aircraft is one of the few 19-seaters which remain in production and the company continues to secure orders. An all-cargo version has also been developed with a 2,500kg payload.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at the Raytheon plant in Wichita, Kansas. 48 aircraft were delivered in 1998.

Ordered: 635 Delivered: 607

REIMS AVIATION Reims Aviation, AÉrodrome de Reims-Prunay, BP 2745, Reims F51062, France; tel: +33 (3) 26 48 46 46; fax: +33 (3) 26 49 13 60; telex: REMAVIA 830754F. Web:; email:

F406 Caravan II

The F406 can carry a payload of 2,000kg over 1,850km at a cruising speed of 245kt. It can accommodate 12-14 passengers, and is also available as a freighter or combi. The aircraft is powered by two 375kW P&WC PT6A-112 turboprops. Reims Aviation shares, previously held by Cessna, were repurchased by Compagnie Francaise Chauffour Investissement in 1989.Production Final assembly at Reims.

REKKOF AIRCRAFT Rekkof Aircraft, Flamingoweg 20, 8218 NW Lelystad, The Netherlands; tel: +31 320 284 1770; fax: +31 320 284 172

Fokker 70/100

Rekkof Aircraft has bought the tooling from the former Fokker 70/100 manufacturing lines and claims to have secured financial backing to re-launch production of the regional jet types. Rekkof has not made any public statement of its plans since September 1998, and the status of the project is unclear.

ROMAERO 44 Bulevardul Ficusului, nr 44, Sector 1, Bucharest 71544, Romania; tel: +40 (1) 232 3735; fax: +40 (1) 232 2082; email:; telex: 11691 IAVB R.


In May 1977 BAe agreed to sell the production rights for its One-Eleven to Romanian manufacturer Romaero (formerly IAvB/Rombac), and final assembly was transferred to Bucharest from Bournemouth in the UK. The first Romaero-assembled One-Eleven 500, the -560, was flown in September 1982. The project was frozen after nine aircraft were completed.

Delivered: 9 In service: 9

ROSS AIRCRAFT Ross Aircraft, 40 Grasscroft Avenue, Honley, Huddersfield HD7 2HY, UK; tel/fax +44 (1484) 662703.

Amphibian Islander

UK company Ross Aircraft (RAC) is developing a low-cost (around $850,000) amphibian version of the Britten-Norman Islander, with the support of the Isle of Wight, UK-based manufacturer. Preliminary design work for the twin Textron Lycoming TIO-540-powered seaplane was undertaken in 1995 using a one-fifth-scale model on a Scottish lake.

Production: Assembly of the first aircraft is scheduled to begin at RAC's factory in Shannon, Ireland, in 1999. The company plans to build five amphibians in the first year, increasing production to 16 units a year.

SAAB AIRCRAFT Saab Aircraft AB, S-581 88 Linkoping, Sweden, tel +46 (13) 180 000; fax +46 (13) 181802; Web:; email:

In December 1997 Saab announced it was to leave regional aircraft manufacturing and production will cease this year. Saab sees a strong future for the types in the used aircraft market and is stepping up support for the 300 aircraft in its lease portfolio. Discussions with BAe continue over a joint asset management organisation after BAe took a 35% stake in Saab.

Saab 340

The initial production version of the Saab 340, the 340A, was flown in January 1983 and entered service in June 1984. Saab introduced an improved 340B version of the GE CT7-powered 33-seat aircraft in 1989, with better hot-and-high performance. The last model, the 340BPlus, was launched in February 1994, offering further improvements in airfield performance, a higher take-off weight and a redesigned cabin. Optional extended wingtips for the 340BPlus were certificated in late 1995/early 1996. They cannot be retrofitted to existing aircraft.

Production: Saab 340 production ceased earlier this year at the Linkoping plant , with the last aircraft being delivered in mid-1999.

Delivered: 456 In service: 452

Saab 2000

A major stretched development of the Saab 340, the 50-seat Saab 2000 is powered by R-R Allison AE2100 turboprops and the aircraft has a new advanced flightdeck. The turboprop had its first flight in March 1992, and entered service with Crossair in 1995. The aircraft, offering a relatively fast cruise speed (360kt) and quiet cabin, was pitched by Saab as a high-speed-turboprop alternative to the 50-seat regional jets. The market for the aircraft failed to materialise, and Saab decided to cease production in late 1997.

Production: The 2000 was built alongside the 340 at Saab's plant in Linkoping. The last of 60 aircraft was delivered to Crossair earlier this year.

Delivered: 60 In service: 60

SHORTS Short Brothers, PO Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3 9DZ, UK; tel: +44 (0) 28 90458 444; fax: +44 (0) 28 90732 974; telex: 74689 SB AIR G.


The 30-seat Shorts 330 was developed from the Skyvan, and was first flown in 1974. The aircraft is powered by two P&WC PT6A-45s, flat-rated to 820kW for take-off . Freight versions of the aircraft are the 330-UTT (Utility Tactical Transport), with increased payload and maximum take-off weight.

Delivered: 136 In service: 77


The 360 was introduced in December 1982 as a successor to the 330. Production ceased in 1991, the last variant being the 360-300. The -300 is powered by two 1,060kW P&WC PT6A-67R turboprops and has improved passenger comfort and reduced noise levels. Shorts has undertaken conversions of ex-airline 360s for the US Army to the utility role, replacing the tapered rear fuselage and single fin with the rear loading ramp and twin-fin empennage of the 330.

Delivered: 164 In service: 153

SIAI MARCHETTI Siai-Marchetti, SRL, via Indipendenza 2, Sesto Calende, VA I21018, Italy; tel: +39 (331) 929 177; fax: +39 (331) 922 525

SF600A Canguro

The Canguro is a nine/11-seat derivative of the piston-engined SF600, which was first flown in 1978, re-engined with two R-R Allison 250-B17C turboprops. Italian certification was received in 1991. The assembly line was acquired by VulcanAir of Naples (see entry) in 1997, and with four aircraft almost complete by April. VulcanAir claims to have parts for about 12 more aircraft and plans to produce around four new SF600s a year, depending on demand. A stretched version is being considered to rival the Britten-Norman Islander.

SOLOY 450 Pat Kennedy Way SW, Olympia, Washington 98501, USA. Tel: +1 (360) 754 7000; fax +1 (360) 943 7659; Web:; email:

Pathfinder 21


Soloy's Pathfinder 21 modification of the Cessna 208B Grand Caravan made its first flight in April 1998, powered by two P&WC PT6D-114A turboprops driving a single propeller through a Soloy Dual Pac gearbox. The fuselage is stretched by almost 2m and strengthened, along with the wings, struts and landing gear, increasing gross weight to 5,675kg.

Production: The company estimates a potential for as many as 160 Pathfinder 21 sales, with a production rate of 10-15 per year.

SUKHOI Sukhoi Design Bureau, str Polikarpova 23A 125284, Moscow, Russia; tel: +7 (095) 945 6525; fax: +7 (095) 200 4243


The twin turboprop S-80, which will be priced at $6.5-7 million, is a rival to Antonov's An-38 and MAPO's MiG-110 for replacing An-24/26s and An-28s and Yakovlev Yak-40s.Sukhoi completed the first airframe for the twin-boom utility aircraft in July 1998 at KnAAPO's Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant and has shipped it to SibNIIA in Novosibirsk for structural load testing. This airframe is in passenger/cargo combi configuration, with room for up to 26 passengers. Two more prototypes are being assembled at KnAAPO, with a first flight due later this year. The aircraft will be powered by GE CT7 turboprops, which Rybinsk Motors is planning to produce under licence. A stretched version, capable of carrying 32 passengers, is planned.

Production: Final assembly is undertaken at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant, in Eastern Siberia, which is part of AVPK Sukhoi.

TANEJA AEROSPACE AND AVIATION (TAAL) 1010, 10th floor, Prestige Meridian ð 1, 29 MG Road, Bangalore - 560 001; Tel: +91 (080) 555 0609; fax: +91 (080) 555 0955; email:


Taneja Aerospace and Aviation (TAAL) of India is undertaking licence production of the Partenavia-designed P.68 light twin at its plant in Hosur, near Bangalore. It delivered the first aircraft built from Italian kits in January 1995, completing five before transferring its efforts to fully indigenous production. The first such aircraft was rolled out in January 1998.TAAL began to assemble the P68 in January 1996 from kits produced by now-defunct Partenavia, and became the sole spare-parts distributor for the P68C in December 1997.Under a production agreement with VulcanAir (see entry), TAAL will construct five aircraft a year initially, rising eventually to 24.Current versions include the Textron Lycoming piston-powered P68C; turbocharged .68TC; and P68 Observer 2 with transparent nose and provision for electro-optical sensors. The 11-seat AP68TP 600 Viator has been in production since 1989 and is powered by two R-RAllison 250-B17C turboprops.

Production: Hosur, near Bangalore

TUPOLEV 17 Akademika Tupoleva, 111250, Moscow, Russia; Tel: 7 (095) 267 25 33; 7 (095) 261 7141


In August 1997 Tupolev received funding approval to develop the 50-seat Tu-324 regional jet, a low-wing, T-tailed configuration with rear fuselage-mounted engines - GE CF34-3B1 or Progress AI-22 turbofans - and AlliedSignal avionics. The aircraft would have a range of 2,500km with 50 passengers and a cruise speed of 445kt.

TURKISH AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES Turkish Aerospace Industries, Tusar Havacilic ve Uzay Sanayii AS, PO Box 18, 06692 Kavaklidere, Ankara, Turkey;


Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) designed a 19-seat twin-turboprop commuter to meet domestic demand after the Turkish Government declared it wanted to open up 40 regional airports. TAI, owned 51% by the Turkish Government, 42% by Lockheed Martin and 7% by GE, is seeking partners to fund a launch. TAI is asking for around half the estimated $200 million development costs from the Government. TAI and Aeroprakt of Ukraine, meanwhile. are studying joint development of the HD-XX regional jet. The basic version would seat 19 passengers while a stretched model would accommodate 30.

VULCANAIR Vulcanair SPA, via G.Pascoli 7, 80026 Casoria, Italy; Tel +39 (081) 5918237; fax +39 (081) 5918172.

SF600 and P68

In 1997 Samanta moved into aircraft production through its acquisition of the SF600A Canguro programme from Siai Marchetti (see entry). In early 1998 the company was renamed VulcanAir and in April it acquired Partenavia (see entry) of Milan through its purchase of AerCosmos. VulcanAir intends to rejuvenate the P68, now produced under licence in India.

WOLFSBERG AIRCRAFT Wolfsberg Aircraft, Woudstraat 23, B-3600 Genk, Belgium;tel +32 (89) 38 08 31; fax +32 (89) 38 61 41.

Raven 257

Wolfsberg Aircraft, the Czech subsidiary of a Belgian company of the same name, is designing a twin-piston utility transport, the Raven 257. Detailed design started in early 1998. The company hopes to complete its first aircraft at Kunovice in the Czech Republic this year. It is aiming for UK certification by October 2000. The company envisages a price of $695,000, to compete with aircraft such as the Brittan-Norman Islander and Piper Aztec.

XI'AN AIRCRAFT Xi'an Aircraft (XAC), PO Box 140-84, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710000, China; tel: +86 (29) 721 4959 or +86 (29) 721 4960; fax: +86 (29) 620 3707.


The Y-7, the Chinese version of the Antonov An-24, entered service with the Civil Aviation Administration of China in 1984. More than 70 have been delivered, most of them into airline service. The Y-7 differs from the An-24 in having a slightly wider fuselage and larger wing, as well as Chinese 2,175kW Dongan WJ5A-1 engines. Five newer models of the aircraft have been developed: the Y-7-100, -100C, -200A, -200B and the Y-7H-500. A future growth version, seating 60-64 passengers, is also under consideration. The Y-7-100 is an improved and modernised version of the original, developed with the help of Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering. The -100A has winglets. The -100C has optional Rockwell Collins avionics, a stretched fuselage, improved aerodynamics and more-powerful engines. The -200B has 2,125kW Dongan WJ5E engines, which have lower fuel consumption than the WJ5As. The 2,050kW P&WC PW127-powered -200A is intended for export and is due to be US certificated. The Y-7-5H is a cargo version, powered by WJ5As.

YAKOVLEV Yakovlev Design Bureau, 68 Leningradsky Prospekt, Moscow, 125315, Russia: tel: +7 (095) 157 17 34, fax: +7 (095) 157 47 26


The 23/34-seat Yakovlev Yak-40 tri-jet first flew in October 1966, and 1,200 aircraft were produced up to 1980, when production ceased. Re-engining with AlliedSignal LF507s was proposed, but never launched.

Delivered: c1,200 In service: c800

Source: Flight International