The first flight of India's three-stage Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with an indigenously developed cryogenic upper stage is planned for 2005-6. The turbopump-fed regeneratively cooled engine, which will burn for 720s, will replace the Russian-supplied cryogenic upper stage of the GSLV, writes Radhakrishna Rao.

The fourth GSLV flight will launch India's GSat-4 experimental communications satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit. As well as GSat-4, the launcher will carry the Tel Aviv University Ultra Violet Experiment which could help scientists analyse data from India's astronomy satellite, Astrosat.

Source: Flight International